Fire Prevention is
- Structural or constructional fire protection
- Plant fire protection
- Organizational fire protection
- Preventive measures
Furthermore, there are very often further interests in terms of property protection. In contrast to the building regulations, the requirements are based in relation to the protection of property in private law agreements. Main factors here are often the requirements that the property and casualty insurers to the execution of the building or its facilities. The cost of property insurance then behave often inversely proportional to the cost of the construction and technical building fire protection. The Preventive fire protection is supported by a fire protection concept. This fire protection concept is usually necessary for the construction project and is created of fire protection specialist planners.
The structural measures, such as in buildings, are very diverse and range from the used building materials and components, in Germany set out in DIN 4102 and DIN EN 13501 and DIN EN 1992-1-2 for the reinforced concrete construction, DIN EN 1993-1 - 2 for structural steel and DIN EN 1995-1-2 for timber, about the structural fire protection in industrial buildings, specified in DIN 18230, on the escape route planned system to extinguishing systems in buildings. In Austria, this is set in the various TRVB -B.
In Germany, it is necessary to have created for each major building fire protection certification by an approved fire protection experts. In addition, the fire protection concept created with the local authorities must be coordinated. A federal law delegates the responsibility to the state responsibility. The regulations are therefore different from state to state.
In Austria the subject fireproofs decrease the fire prevention agencies (also in sovereignty of individual states). In Switzerland, it is regulated by the cantons.
Structural measures must take into account in particular the following aspects:
- Fire behavior of building materials
- Fire resistance of the components
for the technical rules in the Building Regulations List A under paragraph 2 has been made known, and from these to differ materially, or for which there are no generally accepted rules of technology or engineering regulations under Article 3, paragraph 2 (non- regulated building ), must
1. a general building approval (AbZ),
2. a general test certificate (AbP) or
3. an individual approval
- Division of the building into zones by fire walls and protection doors
- escape route planning
- reactive fire fighting by sprinklers or gas extinguishing systems
- active fire prevention by oxygen reduction
In modern buildings, many pipes and insulation to be installed for the gas, water and heating installations made of plastic. Especially the ever-increasing penetration of large buildings with energy supply, control and data cables runs counter to the required by the building section separation with fire walls and fire-resistant floors. The fire load is very high. [1 ] Therefore, in modern buildings with large gatherings of people ( for example, railway stations, airports, museums, convention halls ) special fire-fighting equipment such as fire alarms, emergency lighting, fire doors and fire doors maintained as long as possible.
In public buildings in Germany is the use of halogen-free cables (no PVC) standard. Power lines that run through several fire zones must be protected by a firewall. Electrical wires that are used for mechanical smoke extraction or a fire alarm system, depending on the application must have a fire resistance ( with integrity ) of E90 or E30 (see also fireproof fabric and intumescing).
Not to be forgotten are buildings that are used or occupied by people restricted in their movement (hospitals, clinics, old people's homes, retirement homes, etc.).
Structural fire protection in tunnels: In the tunnels, structural fire protection due to the dramatic tunnel fires in recent years has become increasingly important. In addition to compliance of constructive rules here, mathematical proof (the so -called “fire design “) is becoming increasingly important. Regulations to analysis can be found ex. in ENV 1992-1-2, the ZTV -Eng and the "Guideline for the prevention of fire and civil protection" of the German Train.